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However, because of the tem- perature dependence of Is, VBE decreases about 2. The base sits one diode drop above ground; since its bias comes from a As you can see, FET source followers aren’t nearly as stiff as emitter eatasheet. Two circuit configurations that avoid Miller effect. In our opinion that is unnecessar- ily complicated and unintuitive. What is the output compliance? Even without runaway, better control over the circuit is needed, usually with the sort of arrangement shown in Figure 2.

E] Matched biasing transistor Use a matched transistor to generate the correct base voltage for the required col— lector current; this ensures automatic tem— perature compensation Fig. What happens as RE is re- duced toward zero? Although FET devices still cannot equal bipolar tran— sistors in VGS matching, their performance is adequate for most applications.

A better circuit uses a matched FET pair to achieve zero offset Fig. Sort of a report on the system repairs for you. In the a7d512, the JFET forms the lower half of a resistive voltage divider, thus forming a voltage—controlled attenuator or “volume control”. R is chosen to provide enough base current for the output transistors at the peak output swing.

When a capacitance is driven by a finite source resistance, you see RC ex- ponential charging behavior, whereas a ca— pacitance driven by a current source leads to slew-rate—limited waveforms ramps. The point to un- derstand is that the FET amplifier doesn’t look like a ohm load at signal frequen- c1es. Great things to look forward to in Chapters 4 and ad75512 Again, polarities are normally given for npn transistors; reverse them for pnp.


Frequently one con— centrates on the changes in voltages or currents in a circuit, rather than the steady dc values of those voltages or currents. An alternative approach might be to bypass the feedback resistance in datasgeet to eliminate feedback and therefore lowered eatasheet impedance at signal frequencies Fig. The same is true for the input capacitance in combination with the source impedance Rs.

Explain how the circuit works. Also, you can switch many Page 17 different circuits with a single control sig— nal. For widely varying load currents a high- power zener is often necessary to handle the dissipation at low load current. The output is taken datzsheet one collector with respect to ground; that is called a single- ended output and is the most common configuration.

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This can be very handy where high currents are involved e. Sign Up Sign In. If, instead, a datassheet output is desired, it is taken between the collectors. Matched FETs make it easy to design a ganged variable resistor to control several signals at once. Bipolar transistors aren’t suited to this application, because the base draws current and forms diodes with the emitter and collector, producing awkward clamping action.

In other words, for the emitter follower circuit the effect of the Ebers—Moll model is simply to add a series emitter resistance T8 to our earlier results. Allow at least 10mA zener current under all worst-case conditions. Now the situa— tion is much better. IC designers use techniques like interdigitation two devices sharing the same general piece of IC real estate and datashet cancellation schemes to improve performance Fig.

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Use i15 volt supplies. The different devices including garden-variety npn and pnp bipolar transistors are drawn in the quadrant that characterizes their in- put and output voltages when they are in the active region with source or emitter grounded. Feedback at dc Use dc feedback to stabilize the quiescent point. FET followers, with their high input im— pedance, are commonly used as input stages in oscilloscopes as well as other mea— suring instruments.


With MOSFETs you must never allow the gate insulation to break down; instead, gate leakage is specified as some maximum leakage current at a specified gate—channel voltage. The resulting high input impedance which can be greater than is essential in many applications, and in any case it makes circuit design simple and fun. Buffers or amplifiers for applications where the base current and finite input impedance of B] Ts limit performance. In a real circuit you might arrange a second set of voltage- controlled current sources to cancel the quiescent—point shift that gain changes produce in this circuit, or a differential- input second stage could be added to your circuit.

Superbeta matched pairs are available for use in low-level amplifiers that require matched characteristics, a topic we will discuss in Section 2. Typically, the values of resistance you can produce with FETs vary from a few tens of ohms as low as 0.

Compliance A current source can provide constant current to the load only over some finite range of load voltage. The latter is about k hfe times REso the input impedance dominated by the 10k is about 8k. However, it is safe to assume that the load impedance won’t be smaller than RE, which gives a value for 02 of at least 1.

Oscillators In general, FETs have characteristics that make them useful substitutes for bipolar transistors in almost any circuit that can benefit from their uniquely high input im- pedance and low bias current.