Рис. spirale f d ́Ekman s espiral f de Ekman g Ekman-Spirale f El Niño; southern oscillation The abnormal warming of ocean water off the west coast of. Vagn Walfrid Ekman Category:Ekman spiral cawiki Espiral d’Ekman; dewiki Korkenzieherströmung; enwiki Ekman spiral; eswiki Espiral de Ekman; etwiki. elbow EHT~; – rectffier u TV válvula rectificadora de MAT/; – supply n rv spiral n OCEAN espiral de Ekman m elaeolite n MINERAL eleolita / nefelma.

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Ocean water at the surface moves at an angle to the wind, and the water under the surface water turns a bit more, and the water below that turns even more. File mover What files should be renamed?

Walfrid Ekman who first described the spiral in The classic Ekman spiral has been observed under sea ice, [3] but observations remain rare in open-ocean conditions.

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File: – Wikipedia

As depth increases, the force transmitted from the driving wind declines and thus the speed of the resultant steady current decreases, hence the tapered spiral representation in the accompanying diagram. The force from above is in red beginning ekjan the wind blowing over the water surfacethe Coriolis force which is shown at right angles to the force from above when it should in fact be at right angles to the actual water flow is in dark yellow, and the net resultant water movement is in pink, which then becomes the force from above for the layer below it, accounting for the gradual clockwise spiral motion as you move down.


Journal of Physical Oceanography. But he did have lots of time to make observations of the environment.

Ekman spiral

Wind-induced water movements in a Benguela kelp bed. The diagram above attempts to show the forces associated with the Ekman spiral as applied to the Northern hemisphere. If this media file is useful, then it should be transferred to the Wikimedia Commons. The speed and direction of the moving water changes with depth. The first documented observations of an oceanic Ekman spiral were made in the Arctic Ocean from a drifting ice floe in The average direction of all this turning water is about a right angle from the wind direction.

This average is Ekman transport.

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How Seawater Moves: Ekman Transport

The effect is a consequence of the Coriolis effect which subjects moving objects to espirxl apparent force to the right of their direction of motion in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.


Navytaken or made as part of that person’s official duties. This page was last edited on 4 Decemberat He did this on purpose. PD Public domain false false.

On the influence of the Earth’s esprial on ocean currents. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Skip to main content. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Views Read Edit View history. This image is a work of a sailor or employee of the U. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

The net effect of the rotating water B is movement at right angle to the wind direction. This is due both to the fact that the turbulent mixing in the surface layer of the ocean has a strong diurnal cycle and to the fact that surface waves can destabilize the Ekman spiral.

The depth to which the Ekman spiral penetrates is determined by how far turbulent mixing can penetrate over the course of a pendulum day. The water turns to the left instead of right in the Southern Hemisphere. He thought that trapped in sea ice, which moves with ocean currents, he would get to the North Pole eventually.