Juni In , Morgenthau proposed the Morgenthau Plan for postwar Germany, calling for Germany to lose the heavy industry, and the Ruhr area. It took over two months for General Clay to overcome continued resistance to the new directive JCS , but on July 10, , it was finally. was superseded by the more accommodative JCS The first American Military Government Commander in Germany was. Dwight D. Eisenhower (of World.
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Roosevelt had granted permission for the publication of the book the evening before his death, when dining with Morgenthau at Warm Springs. University of Pittsburgh Pre. This directive sets forth policies relating to Germany in the initial post-defeat period.
All ordinary criminal, civil and administrative courts, except those previously re-established by order of the military government, will be closed.
Pending the formulation in the Control Council of uniform policies and procedures with respect to inter-zonal travel and movement of civilians, no civilians shall be permitted to leave or enter your zone without your authority, and no Germans within your zone shall be permitted to leave Germany except for specific purposes approved by you. As late as March there were still active plans to let France annex the Ruhr.
All armaments plants, including some that could have been converted to civilian operation, were dismantled or destroyed. Prevention or restraint of inflation kcs not constitute an additional ground for the importation of supplies, nor shall it constitute an additional ground for limiting removal, destruction or curtailment of productive facilities in fulfillment of the program for reparation, demilitarization and industrial disarmament.
Prohibit, except as authorized by regulation or license, all dealings in gold, silver, foreign exchange, and all foreign exchange transactions of any kind. They were most active in the first crucial months of the occupation, but continued their activities jcd almost two years following the resignation of Morgenthau in mid and some time later also of their leader Colonel Bernard Bernsteinwho was “the repository jcx the Morgenthau spirit in the army of occupation”.
Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press p. Memoirs of a Diplomat. The Political Economy of Transitions to Peace. Secretary of State Hull was outraged by Morgenthau’s “inconceivable intrusion” into foreign policy. The secret directive JCS for the future government of Germany, the final version of which was presented in Aprildid specify that Germany was ‘occupied not for the purpose of liberation but as a conquered enemy state’, that heavy industry was to be dismantled, that cartels were to be disentagled, that the military was to be abolished and that comprehensive denazification measures were to be conducted, but JCS also contained numerous loopholes, which the US military governor was later able to exploit in order to implement a more lenient occupation policy.
Fragments of Our Time: In Poland agreed to forego further reparations claims against Germany.
Morgenthau Plan – Wikipedia
Harcourt, Brace and Company,p. This included the removal or destruction of all industrial plants and equipment in the Ruhr. You will endeavor to obtain prompt agreement in the Control Council to the making of similar surveys in the other zones of occupation, and you will urge appropriate steps to coordinate the methods and results of these and other future surveys conducted in the various zones. The Control Council should establish centralized control over all trade in goods and services with foreign countries.
Historian Stephen Ambrose draws the conclusion that, despite Eisenhower’s later claims that the act was not an endorsement of the Morgenthau plan, Eisenhower both approved of the plan and had previously given Morgenthau at least some of his ideas on how Germany should be treated.
The original of these policies apparently expressed on September 15,at Quebec, aimed at:. In November General Dwight D. The German people must have it driven home to them that the whole nation has been engaged in a lawless conspiracy against the decencies of modern civilization. It is therefore essential that, during the period covered by this directive, you assure that surveys are constantly maintained of economic, industrial financial, social and political conditions within your zone and that the results of such surveys and such mcs surveys as may be made in other zones are made available to your Government, 17779 the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Mainsprings of the German Revival p. In your discretion you may make such exceptions as you deem advisable for intelligence or other military reasons. Lord Cherwell has been described as having “an almost pathological hatred for Nazi Germany, and an almost medieval desire for revenge was a part 17779 his character”.
Rooseveltrespectively, reached agreement on a number of matters, including a plan for Germany, based on Morgenthau’s original proposal. Retrieved 28 September William Clayton reported to Washington that “millions of people are slowly starving”.
Economic Mission as to Food The military government personnel in each zone, including those dealing with regional and local branches of the departments of any central German administrative machinery, shall be selected by authority of the Commander of that zone except that liaison officers may be furnished by the Commanders of the other three zones.
As a member of the Control Council and as zone commander, you will be guided by the principle that controls upon the German economy may be imposed to the extent that such controls may be necessary to achieve the objectives enumerated in paragraph 4 above and also as they may be essential to protect the safety and meet the needs of the occupying forces and assure the production and maintenance of goods and services required to prevent starvation or such disease and unrest as would endanger these forces.
As Germany was allowed neither airplane production nor any shipbuilding capacity to supply a merchant navy, all facilities of this type were destroyed over a period of several years. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3 below, you are, by virtue of your position, clothed with supreme legislative, executive, and judicial authority in the areas occupied by forces under your command.
Congress warned that the continuation of the present policies. Drew Pearson publicized the plan on September 21, although Pearson himself was sympathetic to it. At Quebec, White made sure that Lord Cherwell understood that economic aid to Britain was dependent on British approval of the plan. Roosevelt who, after reading it, rejected it with the words:.
Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Some have read into the clause “from whom we had much to ask” that Churchill was bought off, and note a September 15 memo from Roosevelt to Hull stating that “Morgenthau has presented at Quebec, in conjunction with his plan for Germany, a proposal of credits to Britain totalling six and half billion dollars.
Germany was to be reduced to the standard of life it had known in Germany will not be occupied for the purpose of liberation but as a defeated enemy nation. The relevant volume of the British official history of the Second World War states that the Morgenthau Plan “exercised js influence upon Allied policy after the Potsdam Conference The list of categories is, therefore, withheld from publication for the present.
JCS – Wikisource, the free online library
To assist in carrying out this policy you will make a survey of combines and pools, mergers, holding companies and interlocking directorates and communicate the results, together with recommendations, to your government through the Joint Chiefs of Staff. You will prohibit all cartels or other jce business arrangements and cartel-like organizations, including those of a public or quasi-public character such as the Wirtschaftsgruppen providing for the regulation of marketing conditions, including production, prices, exclusive exchange of technical information and processes, and allocation of sales territories.
The principal Allied objective is to prevent Germany from ever again becoming a threat to the peace of the world.